THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH
One item of information about the Earth given in the Qur'an is
its similarity to the seven-layered sky:
It is Allah Who created the seven heavens and
of the earth the same number, the Command descending down through
all of them, so that you might know that Allah has power over
all things and that Allah encompasses all things in His knowledge.
The information in the above verse is confirmed in scientific sources,
wherein it is explained that the Earth consists of seven strata.
These, as scientists have identified, are:
1st layer: Lithosphere (water)
2nd layer: Lithosphere (land)
3rd layer: Asthenosphere
4th layer: Upper Mantle
5th layer: Inner Mantle
6th layer: Outer Core
7th layer: Inner Core
The word lithosphere is derived from the Greek word lithos,
meaning stone, which is a hard stratum forming the Earth's top layer.
It is quite thin in comparison to the other strata. The lithosphere
under the oceans is still thinner, and is a region with volcanic
activity. Its average thickness is 80 km. It is colder and harder
than the other strata, and therefore, forms the earth's shell.
Below the lithosphere is the stratum known as
the asthenosphere, from the Greek word for "weak," asthenes.
This layer is thinner than the lithosphere and shifts. It was formed
of hot, semi-solid substances capable of melting when exposed to
high temperatures and pressure over geological time. It is thought
that the hard lithosphere floats or moves over the slowly moving
these layers is a high-temperature layer some 2,900 km thick, made
up of semi-solid rock known as the mantle. This contains more iron,
magnesium and calcium than the crust, and is also hotter and denser,
because temperature and density in the Earth increase with depth.
At the centre of the Earth is the core, approximately twice as
dense as the mantle. The reason for that density is that it contains
a higher proportion of metals (iron-nickel alloy) than rock. The
Earth's core consists of two parts. One is the 2,200 km thick liquid
outer core, the other a 1,250 km thick solid inner core. The liquid
outer core provides the Earth's magnetic field as the planet rotates.
The truth of this similarity between the sky and the layers of
the Earth, only identified by 20th century technology, is without
doubt another of the Qur'an's scientific miracles.
the Earth,” http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/inside.html.